What incentivises you to get out of bed to go to work in the morning?

Why we work and our motivation to work relates to satisfaction of both intrinsic and extrinsic elements to satisfy ours needs at work and these are different according to personal circumstances. Clearly, financial reward is paramount if we have no other sources of income and there have been some stunning examples lately of financial rewards. For example, Facebook’s financial rewards to its employees! The company granted about $796 million in restricted stock units to employees.

NON-FINANCIAL INTRINSIC ELEMENTS THAT MOTIVATE US TO WORK

But people want more from work than money and it is argued that incentive plans should play to the intrinsic need of the employee rather than some external driver.  For example, software engineers are motivated by working with the latest technology in meaningful projects where they can gain the respect of their peers (see http://www.wisebread.com/incentive-plans-always-go-awry). Common non-financial intrinsic rewards cited by people to make them more motivated at work include:

  • Personal achievement opportunities, such as gaining personal fulfilment for jobs well done and  feeling as if they are contributing to something larger than themselves and to achieve personal missions they accomplish through meaningful work.
  • Social elements, such as the camaraderie and interaction with customers and co-workers
  • Career opportunities for advancement and to accomplish life career goal
  • Interest in the work itself, perhaps making something of value to customers or serving customers
  • Opportunities for personal growth though learning, training and development as well as through increased responsibilities at work.
  • The giving of personal time and appreciative attention from the supervisor is one of the most cited by staff as most rewarding and motivational for them at work. We want to be valued for a job well done by those we hold in high esteem. Being patronised or demeaned is one of the greatest turnoffs – and it only needs to happen once. There is much research done on those ‘small moments’ which negatively impact on a working relationship.

Motivation is individual and diverse and sometimes having a positive experience of one of those things can be offset by having a negative experience in another area.

For example, if someone has five of those motivational factors on the above list but their supervisor is not appreciative of their output.

WHAT PEOPLE NEED FROM THEIR WORK TO ENSURE THEY ARE MOTIVATED

Given that what people want from work is dependent on the organisational context, the situation, depending on the person, their needs and the rewards that are meaningful to them, there are a number of elements known from research about what people need to have in order to feed their motivation to work:

  • We need to know we control our own work: by being allowed to have an influence on organisational decisions, by having clear and measurable goals; knowing that we are responsible for defining and completing key task and being recognised for achieving these goals.
  • We want to be communicated with on both small and important matters in a timely way: including understanding the reasons for decisions made by managers; opportunities to participate in meetings and project opportunities and understanding where the organisation is and how our accomplishments meet those.
  • We want to be given opportunities for personal growth and development: this includes training and development; clear career paths; being included in succession planning and experiential learning.
  • We want our managers to lead us well: People want clear expectations that provide a picture of the outcomes desired with goal setting and feedback and an appropriate structure or framework.

INCENTIVES AND RECOGNITION FOR EMPLOYEE MOTIVATION 

Why provide employee incentives?

It is said that engaged, motivated employees work harder, smarter and are more productive. A well structured employee incentive scheme can aid employee retention by engaging them and elevating their productivity and service levels to new heights but it can also help a business attract new employees by enhancing the brand image – engaged employees will talk positively about their workplace.

TYPES OF INCENTIVES COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE INCLUDE:

  • Supercheques or vouchers which can be cashed in at shops
  • Landmark Awards designed especially for loyalty, long service and other special occasions.
  • Money – pre-paid visa cards
  • menu systems incorporating gift vouchers and gifts from categories such as food and drink, jewellery and watches, sports and leisure, photography, sound and vision and a comprehensive selection of lifestyle products.
  • Technology products, such as ipads, iTunes cards
  • Adrenalin-packed experiences such as Bungee jumping, helicopter and Warbird flights, Yacht, powerboat, RIB and Zapcat thrills or driving excitement in supercars, rally cars and off-road vehicles.
  • Enhancing mind, body and soul: such as eco retreats, theatre breaks and casino experiences; Makeover treatments, spa days and detox therapies and popstar singing experience and Champagne tea at somewhere like Blenheim Palace.

DOWNSIDE FOR THE WINNERS

  • Many incentives such as food negatively impact on health plans of employees and requests to stay and work on impact on health and well-being. Downside: ‘Why does my boss buy me chocolates as an incentive when I have just begun a health diet?’
  • Others are innovative but with potential to fail?:
One organization incentivise staff to get their timesheets filled out and turned in on time – the digital ‘Drink Time Sheet’.  The idea? Set up a refrigerator full of free beer, but have it electronically locked, and linked to the office’s timesheet system. Once all the week’s timesheets are submitted, a siren sounds, the refrigerator unlocks, and the staff can celebrate the end of the week with a few Friday beers. http://steveboese.squarespace.com/journal/2012/5/4/timesheets-incentives-and-five-oclock-beers.html

Here, no account is taken of those who do not drink alcohol for faith or any other reasons so this can be alienating. It can also exclude those who work part time, have a negative impact on health and maybe mean employees are over the limit when they drive home.

THE DON’TS OF EMPLOYEE INCENTIVE SCHEMES

CBS News reported on four ways in which incentive schemes can go wrong:

1. Don’t incentivize workers to do things they feel they cannot do. If staff are already working hard to sell the firm’s products but there is no improvement then a review of sales approach or a review of the commercial viability of the product has to take place rather than trying to incentivise staff to sell more. Goal: Sell more. Result: Salespeople look for new employment.

2. Don’t use incentive schemes to address problems managing poor performers. Sometimes there are situations at work where a few people are not behaving as expected. Rather than go to the offenders, management may set up an incentive scheme which aims to get everyone working in the required way but instead institutes new rules that negatively impacts upon everyone.

3. Don’t try and incentivize workers to do something that they believe violates their values. For example, rewarding doctors for seeing more patients de-professionalises doctors.  Many see spending less time with patients to move them through a production process means not practising good medicine. Some may deliberately see fewer patients. Goal: Increase productivity (number of patients seen per doctor). Long term result: Lower productivity.

4. Don’t introduce an incentive plan as a way of getting an unpopular new strategy in. For example, if people have joined a company thinking they are doing one type of work where they can work in their home town then an incentive plan is introduced to do work on the other side of the world. Goal: work abroad. Result: No increase in working abroad and low motivation among the sales staff.

WAYS IN WHICH EMPLOYEE RECOGNITION CAN SUCCEED

Employee recognition should occur throughout the year.

Employee of the month recognition programmes can cause alienation and discontent for those who are working hard and are not being publicly rewarded. Everyone who contributed to a success should be rewarded. Example: one firm had a high turnover. The solution: Use non-cash forms of employee recognition to recruit and retain employees. Employees were rewarded for referrals of qualified employees who stayed more than three months. Daily recognition rewards were issued for being on time, for opening the store in the owner’s absence, and for outstanding customer service. Employee retention increased during the first six months. The owner’s store became identified locally as ‘the best place to work.’

Employee recognition approaches and content must also be consistent. … but not become expectations or entitlements.

Be as specific as you can in telling individuals exactly why they are receiving the recognition. .. specific feedback in employee recognition reinforces what you’d like to see the employee do more of.

Offer employee recognition as close to the event you are recognizing as possible. When a person performs positively, provide recognition and a thank you immediately to capitalise on the employee feeling good at that time and enhancing positive feelings and raising confidence.

Communicate the details of the incentive scheme…from the launch of the programme and throughout to the end.

Measure the results of employee incentives. for example, through increased performance.

Reward managers for providing a supportive environment.

WHEN EMPLOYEE INCENTIVES GO WRONG

Firms should always deliver on incentive promises. One motivated Hooters employee in America got less than she bargained for. She entered a competition to sell the most amount of beer to customers thinking she would get a new Toyota car, she won and was taken out to the car park to be presented with a Star Wars toy. She is currently suing her employer.

Watch out for employee playing games with the system

Most incentive plans involve numbers, increased numbers of sales, increased number of cars off the production line etc.  All such production targets can be ‘gamed’, for example selling something on the grounds that it can be cancelled later or getting someone else to do the selling for you for a smaller bonus.

Incentives can discourage risk taking, creativity, and taking on challenges because the task is now just something that stands in the way of gaining the prize

Incentive schemes should not set employee up against each other and cause rifts in the workplace. Setting up employee competition can backfire and can rupture relationships by destroying trust.

Employee failure to win a reward can be demotivating and impact on performance.  

How good employee recognition programs work – can your company do it?

  • Employees work best if given concrete goals and objectives that they and their supervisors can both measure and manage. Clear, understandable criteria for recognition are important.
  • Generation theory and life cycle theory warns us that we need to understand what motivates each employee. What motivates  a Gen Y student part-timer struggling with tuition fees isn’t what a full-time career track Baby boomer store manager or line manager views as recognition (See the CIPD/Penna research ‘Gen Up’).
  • Good employee recognition programs allow for many winners.
  • Successful recognition awards are often individual surprises rather than multiple awards saved for an announced event. Instead of employees focusing on winning an award, they are focused on just doing well at their jobs.
  • All employees at all levels should be recognized for good work, including supervisors and managers.
  • Effective programmes don’t have to be elaborate and complicated to operate successfully. Once criteria are set and recognition awards match employee values, administration can and should be simple.
  • Versatile recognition programs include tangible and intangible awards for all types of employee successes, from concrete and visible contributions to subtle influences on the company’s successes.
  • To be effective, acts of employee recognition should come from the managers who hire, fire, appraise, coach, and correct employees on a daily basis. Recognition programs can’t be left to top executives at boring monthly meetings.
  • Top executives who offer simple, verbal expressions of gratitude are recognizing employee performance with as much impact as physical rewards offer.

OFTEN OVERLOOKED RECOGNITION OPPORTUNITIES

Here are examples of five often-overlooked recognition opportunities:

  1. Relationships. Recognise customer relationship building as well as customer sales. Building strong relationships with prospective clients can lead to future sales, ongoing business development, and client retention when they do close the deal.
  2. Teamwork. Don’t overlook hidden “stars” within your support staff. Ignoring the people who helped sales is a clear way to make team players feel underappreciated and become resentful.
  3. Effort. Recognise frequency of sales as well as major amounts. Not every new account brings in the kind of revenue that extremely large accounts do. Yet it takes just as much effort, if not more, to close many smaller accounts, and juggling multiple accounts is also time consuming.
  4. Opening Doors. Recognise and/or rewarding the person who opened the door in the first place to avoid feelings of resentment that their time and effort wasn’t appreciated. Sometimes a sales visit doesn’t lead to a sale for your particular department, but maybe it opens a door for someone in a different department of your company and leads to them making a sale.
  5. Loyalty. Recognise someone’s ability to retain clients to encourage behaviour changes that will benefit your entire organization. Whilst bringing in new business is often rewarded, staff are rarely praised for retaining clients. Many employees, in customer service, administration and accounts who work hard every day, often going the extra mile or two, just to keep those existing customers happy.

(Ref: http://atlastraveltalk.com/2012/05/08/rewarding-the-process-not-just-the-results-5-overlooked-opportunities/)

INCENTIVISATION LINKS TO STAFF RETENTION

It can cost two to three times more to replace a worker than to retain the employee. For example, Taco Bell found that 20% of the stores with the lowest turnover rates enjoy double the sales and 55% higher profits than the 20% of stores with the highest employee turnover rates.

Employee recognition is a thank you for doing something that benefits the goals of the organisation. 

Employee of the Month programs can fail because it is exclusive and often the same people win over and over again.

What do you incentivise? Long service or good performance?

SIX ELEMENTS FOR SUCCESSFUL IMPLEMENTATION OF AN EMPLOYEE INCENTIVE PROGRAMME

There are six elements said to make a successful implementation of an employee incentive programme:

  1. Have clear objectives about what you are trying to achieve.
  2. Draw up a budget for short and medium term.
  3. Allocate responsibilities for the scheme.
  4. Decide who the incentive scheme is aimed at.
  5. Allocate timesales for start and end date of the scheme so that participants know how long they have to achieve their goals.
  6. Decide on which incentives are to be used.

THE BEST INCENTIVE A MANAGER CAN OFFER THEIR STAFF IS TO SAY THANK YOU… OFTEN.  SUCH ‘SMALL MOMENTS’ CAN MEAN SO MUCH.

It also doesn’t harm to give an  award but the research suggests don’t make this reward too large or something that will take employees away from what they should be doing and engaging in gaming instead. People like to receive medals and trophies as they have lasting meaning.  Look at the Olympic athletes!

REFERENCES

Kohn, Alfie ‘Punished by Rewards’. Mariner books   http://www.amazon.com/dp/0618001816/ref=rdr_ext_tmb

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Author: Carole Tansley

Emeritus Professor, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, UK. Interpretive researcher and conceptual developer in the areas of organisational talent management and development, narrative knowing and framing theory. My publications include: Journal Articles TANSLEY, C., KIRK, S. AND FISHER, C. (2013) Navigating the ethical maze through design action research. European Journal of Training and Development special issue on ‘CSR, ethics and sustainability: the HRD agenda. TANSLEY, C., KIRK, S. and TIETZE, S., 2013. The currency of talent management - a reply to "talent management and the relevance of context: towards a pluralistic approach". Human Resource Management Review, 23 (4), pp. 337-340. TANSLEY, C., HUANG, J. and FOSTER, C., 2013. Identity ambiguity and the promises and practices of hybrid e-HRM project teams. Journal of Strategic Information Systems. TANSLEY, C. and TIETZE, S., 2013. Rites of passage through talent management progression stages: an identity work perspective. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 24 (9), pp. 1799-1815. HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2012. Sneaking through the minefield of talent management: the notion of rhetorical obfuscation. International Journal of Human Resource Management, 23 (17), pp. 3673-3691. TANSLEY, C., 2011. What do we mean by the term "talent" in talent management? Industrial and Commercial Training, 43 (5), pp. 266-274. TANSLEY, C. and NEWELL, S., 2007. Project social capital, leadership and trust in HR project managers' knowledge in human resourcing information systems projects. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22 (4), pp. 350-368. TANSLEY, C. and NEWELL, S., 2007. A knowledge-based view of agenda-formation in the development of human resource information systems. Management Learning, 38 (1), pp. 95-119. NEWELL, S., HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2007. Project social capital, leadership and trust: a study of human resource information systems development. Journal of Managerial Psychology, 22 (4), pp. 350-368. HOLDEN, N. and TANSLEY, C., 2007. Culturally-distinctive manifestations in international knowledge management - an historical perspective. International Journal of Advanced Media and Communication, 1 (4), pp. 313-327. NEWELL, S., HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2006. ERP Implementation: a knowledge integration challenge for the project team. Knowledge and Process Management, 13 (4), pp. 227-238. HOLDEN, N.J. and TANSLEY, C., 2006. Réconcilier linguistique et management. Business Digest, (164), pp. 28-29. TANSLEY, C., 2004. The vexed relationship between ontology, epistemology and methodology - a reflection on ethnographic practice. Comportoamento Organizacional Egestao, 34 (March). NEWELL, S., TANSLEY, C. and HUANG, J., 2004. Social capital and knowledge integration in an ERP project team: the importance of bridging AND bonding. British Journal of Management, 15, p. S43-S57. TANSLEY, C., NEWELL, S. and WILLIAMS, H., 2001. Effecting HRM-style practices through an integrated human resource information system - an e-greenfield site? Personnel Review, 30 (3), pp. 351-370. TANSLEY, C., 2001. Academic intrapreneurs and E-learning strategy. Internet Journal of Strategy and Planning, pp. 1-18. TANSLEY, C. and HUSSEY, D., 2001. The what, why and how of e-learning. Journal of Professional Human Resource Management, (April). NEWELL, S. and TANSLEY, C., 2001. International uses of selection methods. International Review of Industrial and Organisational Psychology, 16. Edited by Cary L. Cooper and Ivan T. Robertson, Chichester; Wiley. TANSLEY, C. and BRYSON, C., 2000. Virtual seminars - a viable substitute for traditional approaches? Innovations in Education and Training International, 37 (4), pp. 335-345. TANSLEY, C., 1999. Designing computerised HR information systems to enable effective HR strategy and practice. Journal of Professional Human Resource Management, (April). Issue ‘HR and Business Strategy’. London; Croners. TANSLEY, C. and WATSON, T., 1999. Managerial strategic exchange in the development of Human Resource Information Systems. Work, Technology and Employment, 15 (2). BOOK CHAPTERS BUGLEAR, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2010. Using software in research. In: C. FISHER, ed., Researching and writing a dissertation. 3rd ed. Harlow: FT Prentice Hall, 2010, pp. 329-426. HOLDEN, N. and TANSLEY, C., 2008. Management in other languages: how a philological approach opens up new cross-cultural vistas. In: S. TIETZE, ed., International management and language. London: Routledge, 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2007. Using software for Qualitative Analysis. In: C. FISHER, ed., Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. 2nd ed. London: FT Prentice Hall, 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2006. Using software for Qualitative Analysis. In: C. FISHER, ed., Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. Chinese ed. London: FT Prentice Hall, 2006. TANSLEY, C. and STEWART, J., 2006. Changes in workplace learning. In: Reflections - new developments in training. London: CIPD, 2006. TANSLEY, C., 2004. Using NUDIST software for Qualitative Analysis. In: C. FISHER, ed., Researching and writing a dissertation for business students. London: FT Prentice Hall, 2004. TANSLEY, C., 2004. Knowledge management and organizational learning. In: J. LEOPOLD, L. HARRIS and T.J. WATSON, eds., Strategic human resource management. London: Financial Times/Pitman Publishing, 2004, ch. 10. NEWELL, S. and TANSLEY, C., 2001. International uses of selection methods. In: I.T. ROBERTSON and C.L. COOPER, eds., Personnel psychology and HRM: a reader for students and practitioners. Chichester: Wiley, 2001. TANSLEY, C., 1999. Human resource planning: strategies, systems and processes. In: J. LEOPOLD, L. HARRIS and T.J. WATSON, eds., Strategic human resourcing. London: Financial Times/Pitman, 1999, ch. 3. Conference Proceedings Tansley, C., Tietze, S. and Helienek, E. (2015) ‘Filling the “discursive void” in the construction of talent management policy knowledge: a Slovak case study’ in Symposium entitled ‘HRM implementation in the international arena: a multi-level and multi-actor perspective’, Academy of Management, Co-Chairs and Organizers Tanya Bondarouk and Anna Bos-Nehles. (Sponsored by three divisions of the Academy of Management: HR, OB and IM). Tansley, C. and Kirk, S. (2013) ‘Global talent mobility positions: a framing analysis’. Academy of Management: Symposium: ‘Explaining employee perceptions of HRM: employee agency and manager – employee relationships’. Organizers: Kaifeng Jiang and Jeroen Meijerink. Tansley, C., Kirk, S., Barton, H. and Williams, H. 2013. HR ambidexterity: the unexpected consequences of e-HRM implementation. Stream: 5. Human Resource Management Competitive Session, ANZAM, School of Management at the University of Tasmania, Hobart, 4-6 December. TANSLEY, C. and KIRK, S., 2013. Frame positions in talent management mobility practices. In: Academy of Management Conference, Orlando, Florida, 9-13 August 2013. WANG-COWHAM, C., KAMOCHE, K., TANSLEY, C. and ILES, P., 2012. The relationship between knowledge management and talent management. In: British Academy of Management 26th Annual Conference. Management Research Revisited: Prospects for Theory and Practice, Cardiff University, 11-13 September 2012. TANSLEY, C. and TIETZE, S., 2012. Rites of passage in constructions of consultancy talent: the paradoxes of liminality in identity reconstruction. In: European Institute for Advanced Studies in Management, Workshop on Talent Management, Brussels, 16-17 April 2012. TANSLEY, C. and HUANG, J., 2012. E-HRM project team: what identity crisis? In: Academy of Management Conference, Boston, Mass, August 2012. TANSLEY, C. and FISHER, C., 2012. Web-based ethical decision making tool as innovative e-HRM. In: 4th International e-HRM Conference, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, 2012. TANSLEY, C. and FISHER, C., 2012. Ethics frames for a decision support system. In: Academy of Management Conference, Boston, Mass, August 2012. TANSLEY, C., 2010. Project team branding on Human Resource Information Systems Projects. In: Symposium: Realizing the Potential of and HRIS - Unintended Consequences, Human Agency and the HR Function, Academy of Management Conference, Boston, Mass, 2010. TANSLEY, C., 2010. International talent management. In: Annual Conference of the International Association of Cross-Cultural Competence and Management, Lancashire Business School, 23 June 2010. TANSLEY, C., 2010. Ethnographic narrative analysis and managing HRIS talent: a study of human resource information systems work. In: 2010 Symposium: Work, Organisation and Ethnography. The 5th Annual Joint University of Liverpool Management School and Keele University Institute for Public Policy and Management Symposium on Current Developments in Ethnographic Research in the Social and Management Sciences, Queen Mary University of London in Association with Ethnography, 1-3 September 2010. TANSLEY, C. and HUANG, J., 2010. Talent management - rhetoric, narrative employment and emotional obfuscation. In: Constructing and Disrupting Social Realities, Consejo Profesional de Ciencias Económicas de la Ciudad Autónoma de Buenos Aires, 7-10 April 2010. TANSLEY, C. and HOLDEN, N., 2010. Cross-cultural learning: a new challenge for talent management. In: 20th Biennial International Congress Tourism and Hospitality Industry, Opatija, Croatia, 2010. TANSLEY, C. and FOSTER, C., 2010. Talent management and the HRIS specialist: a narrative analysis. In: 3rd International e-HRM conference, Bamberg, Germany, 20-21 May 2010. TANSLEY, C., 2009. Unlocking talent in the public sector. In: Senior Public Sector HR Directors' Event, Westminster, London, 20 January 2009. TANSLEY, C., 2009. Talent management: strategies, policies and practices [presentation]. In: CBI East Midlands HR Directors' Forum, Nottingham, April 2009. TANSLEY, C., 2009. Talent management and the Civil Service Leadership Development Framework. In: Inaugural Cross-Government East Midlands Senior Civil Servants Networking Event, Nottingham, October 2009. TANSLEY, C., 2009. Practising talent management - a suitable case for treatment? In: Leadership Development and Succession Planning for Police, London, 30 November - 1 December 2009. TANSLEY, C., 2009. Education, expertise and evidence. In: Government Veterinary Surgeons Conference, University of Nottingham School of Veterinary Medicine and Science, Sutton Bonnington, Nottingham, July 2009. TANSLEY, C. and FOSTER, C., 2009. Concept borrowing to facilitate a multi-disciplinary approach to the theoretical development of talent management - the case of employer branding. In: European Academy of Management Conference: Stream: Human Resource Management, Liverpool, May 2009. TANSLEY, C. and ALBERY, D., 2009. Return on investment or evaluation of talent management? In: Talent Management in the Public Sector Conference, London, April 2009. TANSLEY, C. and ALBERY, D., 2009. Checking the pressure points in the talent management supply chain. In: CIPD Annual Conference [Showcase], Manchester, October 2009. KAMOCHE, K. and TANSLEY, C., 2009. Talent management as knowledge management: towards a new theoretical framework for managing high potential people. In: British Academy of Management, Brighton, September 2009. WILLIAMS, H., TANSLEY, C. and FOSTER, C., 2008. Skills and knowledge of HR IS project teams: a human capital analysis. In: Second European Academic Workshop on E-Human Resource Management: e-HRM: Barrier or Trigger for HRM Transformation? Aix en Provence (Carry le Rouet), France, 29-30 May 2008. TANSLEY, C., WILLIAMS, H. and FOSTER, C., 2008. Global HR IT development teams as liminal teams. In: 12th International Workshop on Team Working (IWOT 12), Aston Business School, Birmingham, 10-12 September 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. [Presentation on talent management]. In: ESRC Seminar: Talent Management and the Older Workforce in Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, 4 March. TANSLEY, C., 2008. [Leader]. In: Nottingham Business School Talent Management Forum: Managing Talent in the Public Sector, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, 21 November 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. [Leader and chair]. In: Nottingham Business School Talent Management Forum: Talent Management - Making it Happen, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, 29 February 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. [Keynote speech]. In: KPMG 11th People Management (PM) Symposium: Shaping the Huture of HR, Athens, Greece, 21-22 February 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. Talentship: strategy, management, measurement [workshop]. In: Nordics HR Director's Third Annual Strategic Talent Management Conference: Driving Strategic Change through Cutting Edge Talent Management, Piperska Muren, Stockholm, Sweden, 5-6 February 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. Talentship: making talent management happen [workshop]. In: 2nd Annual Middle East Talent Management Summit: Driving Outstanding Business Performance through Strategic and Integral Recruitment, Retention, Competency Management and Leadership Development Programmes, Dubai, United Arab Emirates, 15 October 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. Talent management research. In: CIPD Senior HR Directors' Event, Shakespeare's Globe, London, 30 September 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2008. How to tailor online recruitment to get the best candidates [showcase]. In: CIPD Annual Conference, Harrogate, 17 September 2008. TANSLEY, C. and DOUGHTY, D., 2008. [Keynote speech]. In: United Arab Emirates Talent Management Summit 2008, Dubai, UAE, 12-15 October 2008. NEWELL, S., WAGNER, E. and TANSLEY, C., 2008. The liminality associated with project teams: exploring and explaining some of the problems of ES project implementations. In: 16th European Conference of Information Systems, National University of Ireland, Galway, Ireland, 9-11 June 2008. FOSTER, C. and TANSLEY, C., 2008. Developing a project team brand: implications for practice. In: Academy of Marketing Annual Conference: Reflective Marketing in a Material World, Aberdeen Business School, The Robert Gordon University, Aberdeen, Scotland, 8-10 July 2008. FOSTER, C. and TANSLEY, C., 2008. Attracting talent - the employer branding dimension. In: Academy of Marketing: Corporate Branding Special Interest Group, Intangible Economies Conference, Brunel University, London, 2008. TANSLEY, C., 2007. [Presentation on talent management]. In: Scottish Financial Enterprise event, The Tower, National Museum of Scotland, Edinburgh, Scotland, 17 April 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2007. [Presentation on talent management]. In: Eversheds Summer School: evidence-based HR, Henley Management College, Henley-on-Thames, Oxforshire, 5-6 July 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2007. [Keynote speech]. In: CIPD East Midlands Regional Annual Conference: Talent Management - Growing Your Own Success, Trent Vineyard, Nottingham, 10 October 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2007. Talent management research findings [workshops]. In: HR Directors Strategy Meeting, Radisson Hotel, London, September 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2007. Strategic dimensions of talent management: maximising the benefits. In: Institute of Employment Studies Annual HR Conference: Talent Management: Unlocking the Potential, London Marriott Hotel, Grosvenor Square, London, 6 November 2007. TANSLEY, C., 2007. Developing effective strategic leadership in talent management. In: Workshop for HR Directors in the NHS in Scotland: Developing Effective Leadership in HR, Stirling Highland Hotel, Stirling, Scotland, 6-7 September 2007. HOLDEN, N. and TANSLEY, C., 2007. 'Talent' in European languages: philological analysis of semantic confusions in managment discourse. Stream: managment and philology: perspectives on languages. In: Critical Management Studies Conference, Manchester Business School, 11-13 July 2007. FOSTER, C. and TANSLEY, C., 2007. Attracting talent: the employer branding dimension. In: 3rd Annual Colloquium of the Academy of Marketing's Brand, Corporate Identity and Reputation SIG, Brunel University, London, September 2007. TANSLEY, C. and HOLDEN, N.J., 2005. Knowing in practice: inter-cultural participative competence in human resource information systems project work. In: International Association of Cross Cultural Competence and Management Conference, Vienna University of Economics and Business Administration, Vienna, Austria, 7-10 November 2005. TANSLEY, C., HOLDEN, N. and WILLIAMS, H., 2006. Knowing in practice: inter-cultural participative competence in human resource information systems project work. In: The First European Academic Workshop on Electronic Human Resource Management, University of Twente, The Netherlands, 25-26 October 2006. TANSLEY, C. and NEWELL, S., 2005. Trust and the applicationof HR project managers' knowledge in enterprise-wide information systems projects. In: International Conference of Information Systems, Las Vegas, USA, 11-14 December 2005. HOLDEN, N.J., HAY, A. and TANSLEY, C., 2005. Competencies: what is important or not: what can be taught or not. In: EFMD MBA Directors Meeting, Wharton School, Pennsylvania, USA, April 2005. TANSLEY, C., NEWELL, S. and HUANG, J., 2004. Trust in HR project managers' knowledge in enterprise-wide information systems projects. In: European Group of Organisational Studies (EGOS), Ljubljana, Slovenia, July 2004. TANSLEY, C., SACKS, R. and NEWELL, S., 2003. Generative knowledge integration in e-learning staff development courses. In: Organizational Knowledge and Learning Conference, Lancaster, UK, June 2003. TANSLEY, C., 2003. HR managers' trust relations and the development of HR enterprise-wide information systems. In: IT related transformative change: the perspectives of knowledge and innovation, Nottingham University Business School, Nottingham, 17 December 2003. NEWELL, S., HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2003. Stages of learning in Enterprise Resource Planning contexts. In: Academy of Management, Seattle, Washington, USA, August 2003. NEWELL, S., HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2003. Exploring knowledge integration in project teams: the importance of social networks. In: Fourth European Conference on Organizational Knowledge, Learning, and Capabilities, Organizational Knowledge and Learning Conference, IESE Business School, University of Navarra, Barcelona, 2003. FLETCHER, D. and TANSLEY, C., 2003. A biographical account of 'Entrepreneurial responsiveness', theatre management and performance. In: European Academy of Management, Milan, April 2003. TANSLEY, C., 2002. The politics of knowledge creation in human resource information systems (HRIS) projects - a relational perspective. In: European Group of Organisational Studies (EGOS), Barcelona, Spain, July 2002. TANSLEY, C. and FLETCHER, D., 2002. Knowledge management strategies for intellectual capital generation in business school e-learning development projects. In: Quality Innovation Knowledge Research Conference in Management, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 17-20 February 2002. SELDEN, P., TANSLEY, C. and FLETCHER, D., 2002. Manimala's entrepreneurial heuristics: some research opportunities. In: International Small Business Association, November 2002. SELDEN, P., FLETCHER, D. and TANSLEY, C., 2002. A knowledge-based conceptualization of the entrepreneurial process. In: Small Business and Entreneurship Development Conference, Nottingham University, Nottingham, UK, March 2002. SACKS, R. and TANSLEY, C., 2002. Making academic choices about e-learning technologies. In: 10th Annual Learning and Teaching Conference, Nottingham Business School, The Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, 3 July 2002. Nottingham: Nottingham Trent University. NEWELL, S., HUANG, J. and TANSLEY, C., 2002. Social capital in ERP projects: the differential source and effects of 'bridging' and 'bonding'. In: Track: Innovation, Strategy and Change, ICIS Conference, Barcelona, Spain, 2002. HUANG, J., TANSLEY, C. and NEWELL, S., 2002. Learning within the context of Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) systems implementation: a comparative study of two cases. In: British Academy of Management, London, September 2002. FLETCHER, D. and TANSLEY, C., 2002. Knowledge, learning and reflexivity in studies of business and management. In: Quality Innovation Knowledge Research Conference in Management, Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia, 17-20 February 2002. TANSLEY, C., 2001. Staff development strategies in learning and teaching technologies: knowledge management via strategic exchange or communicates of practice? In: European Group of Organizational Studies (EGOS), 17th Colloquium, 5-7 July 2001, Universitaire Manufacture des Tabacs, Lyon, France, 5-7 July 2001. NEWELL, S., TANSLEY, C. and HUANG, J., 2001. Knowledge creation in an ERP project team: the unexpected debilitating impact of social capital. In: Americas Conference on Information Systems (AMCIS), University of Bentley, Boston, USA, August 2001. KNIGHT, C., 1999. Factors affecting the future development of higher education in the Republic of Uzbekistan. In: Autumn Colloquium of the Centre for Comparative Education Research, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK, 9 November 1999. TANSLEY, C., 2000. The vexed relationship between ontology, epistemology and methodology - a reflection on ethnographic practice. In: European Group of Organizational Studies (EGOS) Conference: Organisational Praxis, Helsinki, Finland, 2-4 July 2000. TANSLEY, C., 2000. Creating a knowledge community to develop IT across the faculty. In: 8th Learning and Teaching Conference, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, 6 July 2000. TANSLEY, C. and NEWELL, S., 2000. Creating project comminities: the importance of selection and socialization. In: 1st Knowledge Management: Concepts and Controversies Conference, University of Warwick, Coventry, UK, 10-11 February, 2000. TANSLEY, C. and BRYSON, C., 2000. Virtual seminars: an evaluation of processes and outcomes. In: 7th Teaching and Learning Conference, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, 2000. BRYSON, C. and TANSLEY, C., 2000. An evaluation of virtual seminars in an undergraduate setting. In: 11th International Conference on Teaching and Learning, Jacksonville, Florida, 11-13 April 2000. TANSLEY, C. and BRYSON, C., 1999. The development of virtual seminars for a final year undergraduate module - the challenges of the first stage. In: 6th Teaching and Learning Conference, Nottingham Business School, Nottingham Trent University, Nottingham, UK, 1999. TANSLEY, C. and WATSON, T., 1998. Visions and vision making in practical managerial and leadership discourse. In: Annual Conference of the British Academy of Management, East Midlands Conference Centre, University of Nottingham, Nottingham, UK, 14-16 September 1998. TANSLEY, C. and WATSON, T., 1998. Managers, strategies and information technologies in international human resource management. In: Sixth International Conference on International Human Resource Management, University of Paderborn, Paderborn, Germany, 23 June 1998. TANSLEY, C. and MINTON, N., 1998. Human resource strategy: from blueprint to reality. In: Computers in Personnel Conference, Barbican, London, 1998. PROFESSIONAL/NATIONAL REPORTS Stewart, J. and Tansley, C. (2002) Training in the Knowledge Economy London: CIPD. www.cipd.co.uk UK national report on training, knowledge management and e-learning Stewart, J. and Tansley, C (2006) Changes in workplace learning' in Reflections - New Developments in Training (April). London: CIPD Tansley, C; Foster, C. Harris, L., Stewart, J. Sempik, A., Turner, P. and Williams, H. (2006) Change Agenda: Talent Management: Understanding the dimensions. London: CIPD. www.cipd.co.uk CIPD first report on national research on talent management. (October) Tansley, C; Foster, C. Harris, L., Stewart, J. Sempik, A., Turner, P. and Williams, H. (2007) Talent management: Research on practice. London, CIPD. www.cipd.co.uk CIPD second report for HR practitioners on national research on talent management. Tansley, C; Foster, C. Harris, L., Stewart, J. Sempik, A., Turner, P. and Williams, H. (2007) Talent management: The Executive View. CIPD report for Executive-level readership on national research on talent management entitled Tansley, C and Sempik, A. (2008) ‘Talent Management: design, implementation and evaluation (tools)’. London: CIPD. www.cipd.co.uk INTERNET RESEARCH REPORTAGE Tansley, C. (2103) ‘Ambidexterity and electronic human resource management systems’ IN ‘HR Zone Toolkit, a report by Professors on HR technology. http://www.hrzone.com/feature/technology/hr-technology-toolkit-written-professors/141181] BOOK CHAPTERS Tansley. C. (1999) ‘Human Resource Planning: strategies, systems and processes', chapter three in Strategic Human Resourcing edited by J. Leopold, L. Harris and T.J. Watson. London: Financial Times/Pitman Publishing. Newell, S. and Tansley, C., (2001). “International uses of selection methods”, chapter in Personnel Psychology and HRM: a reader for students and practitioners. Edited by Ivan T. Robertson and Cary L. Cooper, Chichester; Wiley. Tansley, C. (2004) ‘Using NUDIST software for Qualitative Analysis’ in Fisher, C. (2004) (Ed.) Researching and Writing a Dissertation for Business Students. London; FT Prentice Hall. Tansley, C. (2004/2009). ‘Knowledge management and organizational learning’, chapter ten in Strategic Human Resource Management edited by J. Leopold, L. Harris and T.J. Watson. London: Financial Times/Pitman Publishing. 2nd edition for the North American market due March 2009. Tansley, C. (2006) ‘Using software for Qualitative Analysis’ in Fisher, C. (Ed.) Researching and Writing a Dissertation for Business Students. London; FT Prentice Hall. Chinese edition. Tansley, C. (2007, 2nd Edition) ‘Using software for Qualitative Analysis’ in Fisher, C. (Ed.) Researching and Writing a Dissertation for Business Students. London; FT Prentice Hall. Holden, N. and Tansley, C. in Tietze, S (2008) ‘Management in other languages: how a philological approach opens up new cross-cultural vistas’ in International Management and Language , London, Routledge.

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